Diabetes is a chronic condition marked by abnormally high blood sugar level. The two types of diabetes are type-1 and type-2.Type 1 is a condition of non- production of insulin in the body .Earlier known Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is now known as Diabetes type 2. We know insulin is a hormone, secreted by beta cells of pancreas .Main function of insulin is to regulate the amount of glucose in blood, by converting excess of glucose into glycogen, which in turn is stored in liver and muscles .Deficiency of this hormone results in excess of glucose in blood, which ultimately appears in urine. This condition resulting due to lack of insulin is called type 2 diabetes. In such cases insulin is produced in the body but either the pancreas is not producing enough amount or the body is not able to use it properly .This is called insulin resistance.
- Hyperglycemia-Increased sugar in blood.
- Glycosuria-appearance of sugar in urine.
- Diuresis-Increased and frequent urination.
- Increased thirst-Excess of sugar in blood causes more fluid to be pulled from the tissues, which increases thirst.
- Disturbed glycogen level-In liver glycogen level is below normal, and heart muscle glycogen is above normal.
- Increased hunger-As insulin is not converting sugar, hence organs and muscles suffer depletion in energy. This triggers intense hunger.
- Weight loss-Since glucose metabolism is absent hence body starts using alternative fuels stored in organs and muscles .Calories are also lost as much of glucose is released in urine.
- Fatigue-We know sugar is ready source of energy, so when body is deprive of sugar, one may feel tired.
- Blurred vision-As discussed in previous symptom of thirst, increased intake of fluid from lenses of eye may effect vision also.
- Infections-Body becomes more infectious, and healing of sores takes more time in patients of type 2 diabetes.
- Darkened skin-Sometimes dark, velvety skin is seen in the folds of body like armpit or neck. This condition is called acanthoses nigricans, and this could be one of the symptom.
Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults, but can affect children as well. If untreated can lead to life threatening. There is no medicine to cure diabetes , what can help in maintaining the condition is precaution, which includes proper diet and exercise. But when exercise and diet is incapable of controlling the blood sugar level, then one might require diabetes medicine or insulin therapy.